Louis XIV Asks Riddles VIII

Esteemed Readers,

here is a new allegoric enigma for your pleasure. This time it is dedicated to something really precious for everybody:

We have no life of our own and if we are born, we become an ornament of masterpieces of Heaven: we add grace to any beauty, while its desires always make us famous; The one who pays a lot of attention to us will gain more glory; he tears new beauties from us; we hold back hearts of those who we have enchanted and we also get the fruit of this victories; Often we are alike moving waves in the sea, disturbed by the wind; you are ill when you lose us and you often cut us…What are we? 

REPLY to the Riddle posted on November 5, 2018: HEART

My congratulations to John and Belén! You have made it!

🙂 🙂 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo

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L’Edict de Nantes – A Straight Way to Revolution

This historical document, figuratively speaking, is one of first nuclear bombs of the European Christian world. Almost all the historians declared that it was a breakthrough, while Louis XIV committed a serious error by revoking it. And one would hardly find an authoritative opinion speaking openly about the danger of this beau geste made by His Majesty’s grandfather.

L’Edict de Nantes was signed in April 1598, (precisely 420 years ago), and it granted to the Protestants enormous rights. Without getting into details of the French national environment, Henri IV gave the Calvinists a high status, equal to the Catholics, special civil rights, permitted them to spread their religion all over the kingdom, to work in any field they wanted etc. On one hand, these measures instantly ceased the religious war inside the country. But on the other, Henri IV opened the gates to the liberal Evil that would eat up the kingdom almost 200 years after.

Besides mockery at the true Christian Faith, the Protestants united free-thinkers, representatives of religious sects and other suspicious currents and plenty of other eccentric persons who did not see anything good in the Catholic Christianity and dreamed to destroy its core and to replace it with their own religion. – I guess they would be happy to celebrate their victory in the 21st century. – It is known that they were Protestants who published false Bibles and perverted sacred Christian texts. We may only wonder what moral principles this sort of people had if they dared to change the Scriptures yet in the 17th century!

I should notice that Henri IV was born a Protestant. When it happened that he had to ascend the throne, he instantly changed his religion and became a Catholic. “Paris vaut une messe”/ “Paris is worth a mass” he said and this quote expresses his attitude to the religious situation in France. However Louis XIV’s grandfather did not comprehend it well. Certainly, when he became the king, the kingdom was exhausted with the religious conflicts & other problems, but, unfortunately, no matter his name le Bon, Henri IV was not the best sovereign. He was a good soldier, friend, a great amateur of the female beauty, but not the king. The peace he established was fragile and l’Edict de Nantes signing aggravated the situation.

So, when in 1685 Louis XIV revoked this document it was already late. Protestantism took its roots all over France, formed its own lobby, if I might say so, and slowly began to oust the Catholicism. It gathered various forms of the Royal opposition, preparing the ground for a new age of “Libertè, egalitè, fraternitè”…

Vive le Roy! 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo

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Faith & Honour: Catholicism VS Protestantism

No matter what religion you belong to, Esteemed Readers, it is impossible to comprehend the historical processes that happened in Europe before the French Revolution without penetrating into the subject of the Catholic-Protestant conflict. Unfortunately, the majority of historians, especially modern ones, are rather ignorant in this topic or do not pay much attention to its importance. As a result they lead you in secular directions, that do not allow to comprehend the sense of most historical problems.

So, the 17th century France was a Catholic state and it was surrounded with a great number of Protestant countries or those who supported this religious current. For us, modern people of the Hi-Tech Age, living in the age of Progress and a total atheism, there is no big difference between the Catholicism and the Protestantism…While, in fact, there is. If people of the 17th century traveled into our Time, they would be really surprised with our tolerance and indifference in the Faith questions.

Catholicism has always been presented as the authentic Christian doctrine and the image of the True Faith. The Bible and all the writings of Saints are based on it. It is a pure version of Christianity the European world knew before Martin Luther. His teachings exploded the Christian world as they were far more than a philosophical discusssion. They perverted the meaning of main Christian postulates, mocked at the Pope and prejudiced the existing Christian order. Luther’s goal was obvious: to poison human minds and to make the schism. With this purpose he did an incredible thing: made the religion accessible to common people by translating the Bible and performings rites in the vulgar tongue. Jean Calvin was one of the most authoritative follower of the Reformation, who had a serious impact in France, his homeland.

For sure, followers of this religious current, that brought nothing new into the world, besides cruel religious conflicts, were regarded by the true Christians as heretics and enemies of the True Faith, that is of God. They were even more dangerous than arabs with their Islam, as they indeed underminded the Christianity all over Europe. In April 1598 the king Henri IV signed l’Edit de Nantes, (I will tell about it more in the next post), which provided unlimited freedoms to the Protestants, thus it gave them a right to establish their religion in the kingdom. It was a serious mistake and caused  great deal of negative consequences Cardinal de Richelieu and Louis XIII had to face.

The Protestant problem remained of high importance at the reign of Louis XIV too, but constant wars did not allow His Majesty settle it until 1685 when he finally revoked l’Edit de Nantes.

And now let’s examine the European countries around France and their leaders. Most of them were Protestants who regarded Louis XIV as an agressor, a heretic and a Catholic who was worth of death. And they desired to eliminate him and to destory his own kingdom by all means. It is a human goal, is not it? They were great anthagonists of the True Faith and they wished to impose thier new religion which corrupted the Scripture and challenged God Himself. How much this historical picture remains of the present time. The only difference is that at present Protestantism is called Democracy.

Vive le Roy! 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo

 

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Louis’s Rivals: William III Of Orange

Unlike Leopold I, William III of England might be called more an ideological than a political opponent of Louis XIV, no matter his participation in various anti-French campaigns. In the frames of an eternal French-English confrontation, it was a rather curious battle of two chevaliers protecting their views.

William III, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland, was a Protestant leader, known with his staunch religious position, that helped him to become the king of England. However, he was a perfect diplomat, interested in the total European peace. He regarded His Majesty as a mortal enemy and did all his best to oppose him and at the same time he established & fortified diplomatic contacts with France. For him Louis XIV was an enemy because His Majesty was the most powerful Catholic sovereign in Europe. Being a zealous Protestant, William could not accept any domination of that sort even in his worst nightmare. His friend Leopold I was a rather weak religious leader who had to balance between both religions in his own state. Besides his own faith was not as strong as William III’s one.

While Louis XIV regarded the Protestant England as a true peril for the whole Catholic world…and not without a reason. Having become the king of England, William III began spreading Protestantism & the religious toleration. Besides he did all possible to restrict the Roman Catholics’s liberty. The revocation of l’Edit de Nantes turned out to be profitable for William, as he opened gates of England for chased brothers in faith. He comprehended what a dangerous powers he gathered in his state and they would play their role in the next century when the time would come. Why? You will learn in the next post!

Vive le Roy! 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo

 

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Louis’s Rivals: The Habsburgs

The House of Austria has always been one of the most influential enemies of France. Long before Louis XIV the Holy Roman Empire aspired to keep its leading position in Europe. Huge territories and insatiable ambitions of its rulers, who were ready to use any mean of a policy of restraint not to allow their neighbours to become strong, made Europe play their game for quite a long period of time. The Holy Roman Empire after the Thirty Year War included The German princely states, Bohemia, Austria, Hungary, Burgundy, The Duchy of Milan, The Kingdom of Naples & many other lands.

It was a serious problem for France to have the Habsburgs from the both sides . The Great Cardinal de Richelieu made first steps to establish a sort of diplomatic relationship which gave to the state a chance to breath and to grow. His tactic was so successful, that by the time when Louis XIV began reigning, France got the power, the army and even its own navy.

Faith and supporting of Protestantism were another reasons why France & the Habsburgs had a strained relationship. The Holy Roman Empire, being a polyethnic state, supported various forms of Protestantism, especially Calvinism, strictly forbidden in France. This cancer of Christianity would turn into horrors of the French Revolution a century later, while for Louis XIV, the Habsburgs’ tolerance would turn into a nightmare after the revocation of l’Edict de Nantes. Chasing French Protestants moved to the German states and then invented disgusting lies about the King, further used by the French Revolution leaders.

In brief, I would mention Leopold I, the Emperor of that period and one of Louis’s main adversaries. He was a mediocre ruler as well as a cold and a rather awkward person. Initially he was going to become a priest, but when smallpox took his brother Ferdinand, he was destined to ascend the throne. He was lack of a diplomatic flexibility, was dogmatic and very conservative, besides he regarded France & Louis XIV’s only as a menace. Only imagine, their rivalry with His Majesty lasted for 47 years! Incredible persistence, I must admit…instead of working together to consolidate peace in Europe.

Vive le Roy! 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo

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Louis XIV Asks Riddles VII

Esteemed Readers,

here is a new intricate enigma for your entertainment. Although it is very allegoric, I’m certain you can guess it out. I will give you a small hint: it concerns love. Good luck!

Often I’m stolen; and I exist without being given to hands of my bearer; I’m the smallest and the greatest thing at the same time, and you can see me only when I’m dead.

REPLY to the Riddle posted on October 1, 2018: SHADOW

Have a nice riddle Samhain time! 🙂 🙂 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo

 

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On the eve of Samhain – Korrigans & Breton Mythology

The Celtic New Year or Halloween, choose what is closer to you, my esteemed Readers, invite us to move deeper in centuries and to ponder upon the Celtic French roots, yet too strong in the consciousness of the 17th century people. The region of Bretagne, that managed to save the spirit and plenty of national treasures until our days, is the best source to close the real history of the Celts, while the Breton Mythology is full of surprises for all folk lovers.

We should notice that Bretagne played an important trade role in the economy of the 17th century France. At Louis XIV’s time this province profited from the naval expansions. The main ports were built at Saint-Malo, Brest and Lorient, while Bretons were always welcome in the navy and participated actively in the colonization of New France and West Indies. However, the rebellion of 1675, known as the Revolt of the Bonnets Rouges, might spoil the positive impression of the epoch, as it was repressed in a very hostile way. The atrocity of soldiers was the result of their characters, though, and never came from His Majesty’s orders.

Anyhow, let’s return to the Breton mythology. Among its numerous amazing characters, Korrigans, Sirens of Bretagne, are associated with the Halloween. They are sirens, prototypes of the ones lived in the region, (there are numerous historical proves and even Antoine de Furetiere’s dictionary mentions about mermaids living in France) sometimes described as fairies with golden hair. It is believed that they are linked with the dead and represent a sort of a race, forming invisible inhabitants of Bretagne. They are fond of dancing and can foretell the future. Some folk perceives them as doomed human souls, who wandered the earth after their tragic deaths. Besides, they could lure men with their beauty and then kill them.

Regarding the Halloween, they say that some of them might become visible that night near the ancient dolmens, Tumuli and Menhirs, waiting for their victims. As we might see, there is a sophisticated connection between the Divine, beauty & death in these beliefs as much as in the sense of Samhain. It is the time when darkness is welcomed by light, when death opens new paths for live, when ancestors come to help us.

Vive le Roy! 🙂

Maria KethuProfumo 

PS: See more about Korrigans.

 

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